I. Doctrine. ii, 45). Shepherd, a … the law of works in contrast with the law of faith, of the two covenants (Ga 4:24), and not unfrequently of an old and a new covenant. See synonyms for federal theology noun (In Calvinist thought) theology organized around the idea of an Old Testament Covenant of Works and a New Testament Covenant of Grace. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). 3 vols. The events of human history were regarded in their anthropological aspect as well as related to the divine efficiency. By their doctrine of a general redemption, they maintain that in spite of the loss of the supernatural aids through the Fall, and the consequent incapacity of unassisted man to have such good dispositions, there is given to every one, through Christ, those gracious influences which, if not resisted, would lead on to a saving conversion (Watson's Theol. They are inconsistent. (See, however, Bede on Ge 17:14.) Think about it. Rev. Federal Theology (Lat.faedus, a compact; adj. He it was who represented the divine Ruler in all those dispensations of mercy of which the sacred history informs us. ii, ch. The seal by which this covenant was ratified and signified was at least the tree of life, lent a sacramental character has been attributed to almost everything mentioned is the scriptural account of Paradise. Doct. The result was a crude syncretism of an ideal or hypothetical Universalism with' a rigid and real Particularism. It was indeed sufficient in objective worth to expiate for any amount of sin in any number of worlds. In his Seven Books upon the Truth of the Christian Religion, he endeavors to trace the economy of the covenant of grace to the several Persons of the sacred Trinity, by showing that the Father reveals himself, especially in the Old Testament, as the universal Ruler maintaining the cause of justice; the Son, especially during his life 'on earth, as the: Mediator dispensing mercy; and the Holy Ghost, especially since the day of Pentecost, as the Comforter exercising divine and saving power. Cocceius, Burmanan, Witsius, and Voetius; Ebrard's Chr. The consequence was that all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation, were henceforth to be treated as guilty and fallen creatures. Although under all dispensations he conceived of man as receptive and God alone as communicative, he still represented man as coming under an obligation to perform certain duties which were looked upon as a virtual condition of the divine promises. See more. 4:chap. The Hebrew בּרַית signifies undoubtedly in its primary meaning a mutual compact (Robinson's Gesenius's Lexicon), and yet it is not unfrequently applied to transactions in which such an idea in its strictness is impossible (Ge 9:9-18; Jer 33:20-21). It does not appear that the Federal system has at any time found universal acceptance in the Reformed churches. viii and xiv). The apostle often speaks of. (C. We have reason to suppose, also, that their powers were quite ample for the performance of the condition. He thus becomes their surety, not merely to make them inherently holy, but to perform what is required of them. He thus became a new federal head for his spiritual seed, similar to that which Adam had sustained to his natural descendants. Federate definition is - united in an alliance or federation : federated. This arbitrary assignment of the divine attributes, however, has never been acceptable. FV is defined as Federal Vision (theology) very frequently. He was to share with them in the actual curse which the first sin had brought on the human race, not shrinking even from death in its most terrific form. of Methodism, pt. v, iii, and xiv; A. Fuller's Gospel, etc., in Works, i, 312-340, vol. It has actually conferred innumerable benefits upon all men. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? But as man was under condemnation, and could not therefore act for himself, the Son of God acted in behalf of all of whom he was to be the spiritual head. ix; Presb. These have been successive in their revelation to man, since the former was an arrangement before the Fall, and the latter was not made known until after that event; and yet the latter must have been agreed upon before all worlds, whereas the former could not have been formed until the creation of man; and some contend that those who refuse their consent to the covenant of grace must necessarily remain, even now, under the obligations and penalties of the covenant of works. Along with the diversity of personalities associated with FV, the theological goals of FV differed according to these personalities. Theol. In both we have the same contracting parties, God and man; the same blessing to be attained, eternal life; and the same requirement of perfect obedience; but they differ, inasmuch as the covenant of grace is a dispensation of' mercy to sinners, is through a divine Mediator, and secures the blessings of eternal life without the possibility of-a failure. federal definition: 1. relating to the central government, and not to the government of a region, of some countries…. Un État fédéral (ou fédération, en latin : foedus, « l'alliance ») est un État habituellement souverain, composé de plusieurs entités autonomes dotées de leur propre gouvernement, nommées États fédérés.Le statut de ces entités est généralement garanti par la Constitution, et ne peut être remis en cause par une décision unilatérale du gouvernement central fédéral. The Federal Vision and Reformed Theology. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? Notwithstanding the objections raised against the federal system, its principles were carried still further forward with fearless and logical consistency by Francis Burmann, a pupil of Koch, and a professor in the University of Utrecht. of the Cov. As an adjective and a noun: -1. a) Of or pertaining to a Covenant, Compact, or Treaty. He was constituted the representative of his race, and a limited period was assigned him in which the destiny of all was to be decided. Without ascribing to this transaction the technicalities of a human compact, and conceding that the whole mode of viewing it is anthropomorphic, it is contended that something equivalent to this, and amounting to such a mutual understanding, must have existed in the sacred Trinity. Located in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, EPFL is twinned with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich). The national Scotch Church, with its affiliated branches in Scotland and Ireland, has always upheld the system in its utmost consistency and extremest form. of Chr. Christ will claim the right to do this even with respect to such as are not under his spiritual headship, inasmuch as they too are in one sense purchased by him (2Pe 2:1), and hence power over all flesh has been given him by the Father (Joh 17:2). See synonyms for federal theology noun (In Calvinist thought) theology organized around the idea of an Old Testament Covenant of Works and a New Testament Covenant of Grace. ii, 208-11). In his Summa doctrinae de faedere et testamento Dei (1648), and still further in his more enlarged Summa Theologiae (2d edit. History. federal (adj.) The covenant of nature, or of corks, is nowhere spoken of under that name, but is supposed' to, be. His posterity fell under the imputation of his guilt, were destitute of original righteousness, and became corrupt in their whole nature. The contrast and resemblance which Paul also draws between the first and the second Adam (Ro 5:12-21; 1Co 15:45) would seem to have no meaning without the understanding of a covenant with our great progenitor. Leyden, 1704, and Compend of Theology, Berne, 1703) were the organic union of the three great tendencies of Scholasticism, Federalism, and Cartesianism, and have obtained general acceptance in the schools of Holland; and in those of F. A. Lampe, the pastor of several influential congregations and a professor in Utrecht (1720-27), whose doctrinal and practical works in the German vernacular have had the honor of reconciling Pietism to the orthodox Church, and have sometimes had a popularity scarcely inferior to the authorized Catechism of the national Church. Jesus Christ will continue to administer it until the whole world shall be subdued unto him. The word “federal” is from the Latin (foedus) meaning “covenant.” Although its proponents are committed to the basics of Reformed theology, and as such, it may be viewed as a subset within covenant theology, it’s not a monolithic movement and it contains within it a number of different theological emphases. To constitute a natural ground for this headship, he was to become a man, uniting divinity in one person with humanity. 1, that of nature or of works and, 2, that of grace. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Personally he lost the moral image of God, communion with God, corporeal life, a place in Paradise, and the hope of a blessed immortality. In the British Islands, and especially in those churches which adhere to the confession of faith put forth by the Synod of Westminster (1643-8), we have the stronghold of the federal system. ii, 412). the doctrine, as stated by its advocates; (II.) This result was not the effect of any action on God's part either positive or privative, but in the exercise of man's-own freedom. It involves, indeed, a law which man has no right to disobey; but superadded to this is a promise of benefits vastly disproportioned to the merit of obedience, a limitation of the time and circumstances of the probation on which all is made to depend, and the representation of many by some one as their natural head. Theol. Nor has any clear instance of such an application of the word to man's primeval state been found in any theological writer before the commencement of the 17th century. in The Origins of the Federal Theology in Sixteenth-Century Reformation Thought. theology meaning: 1. the study of religion and religious belief 2. a set of beliefs about a particular religion 3…. Better Bible Study § 37-44; Vincenst's and Fisher's Catechisms; Hagenbach's Hist. The object of these was to limit the direct consequences of Adam's sin to a privation of original righteousness, or the loss of those aids of the divine spirit on which they made the original moral image to depend, to temporal evils, and to bodily death, together with such a depravation of our mental and moral state as renders us incapable of obedience, and so to extend the benefits of Christ's death, that he should not only be regarded as dying for all men alike, but as actually restoring to them such supernatural aids as, if properly used, would enable them to lay hold upon the great salvation (Nichol's Calvinism and Arminianism in Watson's Theol. I. iv. Identifying FV theology is difficult because of the variety within its advocates. Iren. What made you want to look up federal theology? God has encouraged no expectation of salvation by an obedience to the law, for, even if such an obedience were possible, no one has ever realized it, and God has provided no promises for a merely hypothetical case. It has, however, been most common to speak of all God's arrangements for the salvation of men as under a single covenant, which, however, may have various modes of dispensation. That covenant required obedience only for a limited period, and he has fulfilled the law during the time allotted him by the Father. Accessed 26 Dec. 2020. of Doctr. Federal definition is - of or constituting a form of government in which power is distributed between a central authority and a number of constituent territorial units. It strays from biblical principles in regards to salvation, sanctification, and the role of the church. xliii; Barnes, ,On the Atonement, chap. Have you ever wondered about these lines? We set forth (I.) The Father (who in this transaction is usually regarded as personating the Deity as such) engaged to spare his beloved Son, to furnish him with all suitable endowments and preparations for his work, to support him in it, to deliver into his hands all power in heaven and on earth, to pardon and accept all who should come unto God by him, and to confer upon him a glorious reward forever and ever. The Christian dispensation is the ultimate form in which the covenant of grace will be administered; for, since all national restrictions have been removed, and the Holy Spirit is given in his plenitude, no other is conceivable. 8:§ 10; bk. Of these alone can he be regarded as the proper head and representative, since they alone are ingrafted into him by a living and active faith. § 224; New Englander, 27:469-516; Bibl. Throughout the history of the church, one of the most important topics found throughout the Bible, or, for that matter, the lives of the most well-known people of God, is the nature of true worship. But not salvation by our works ! Where God and man are the parties, the benefits must be all on one side and the obligations on the other. 1. It is clearly the case that Jesus took our place on th… After an indefinite period this covenant was violated on man's part. In his Synopsis of Theology, and especially of the Economy of the Covenants (1671), he, endeavored to show that all the details of the covenant of nature were fairly to be inferred from the idea of the divine image in man in connection with what- we know of the divine goodness, since that goodness would of course desire to bring man into the highest communion with itself; and Would not he satisfied with the prescriptions of a mere natural justice. ii, 48-52; Porter's Comp. If, therefore, no other scheme bad been proposed to man, each individual of our race had lain under the penalty of a broken covenant, which subjected him to a hopeless abandonment by his Maker, to all the evils of a dying state in this world, to final death itself, and to an everlasting banishment from God in the world to come. but they think it best never to attempt a, definition of them. Dogm. The assembly of divines at Westminster was, in fact, contemporary with the first publication of Koch's principal work on the covenants (1648), and deserves a credit, perhaps, equal to his for the origination and precise statement of the doctrine. Quart. It is generally conceded that the federal system had its origin with Kloppenburg, a professor of theology at Franeker (died in 1652). Such an atonement is not merely hypothetical, but really opens the door of salvation to all men, who are supposed, even since the Fall, to possess all those faculties and powers which render them responsible for a compliance with the terms of salvation. The whole race sinned in Adam and fell with his-a not because of any confusion of personal or moral identity, not because of any transference of character from one man to another but simply because all were represented in him. This fidelity to the scriptural representation compelled him to develop his system according to the successive periods of the sacred history (Ebrard, Dogmen. ii, ch. Source: McClintock and Strong Cyclopedia book module from SwordSearcher. viii and xii; Hill's Lect. per. Christianshave no problem with Jesus representing us on the cross, but they often reject the idea of Adam representing us in the garden; but to reject one is to reject the other. v, ch. d. chr. The United Presbyterian Church alone is said to maintain it, with some modifications connected with the theory of a general atonement (Wardlaw, On the Extent of the Atonement, § 13-15). Learn more. Our First Federal Head “Death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come” (v. 14). As we read of some who were chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world, it has been inferred that there must have been in eternity an agreement or covenant between the persons of the sacred Trinity, according to which a seed was given to the Son to serve him, and that he became their surety to satisfy the claims of justice upon them, to give them a title to eternal life, and to bring them to everlasting glory. and Rev. § 40; D. Schenkel, Christ.-Dogmen. Though the Redeemer had not, in fact, died before the earlier dispensation, he was looked upon as slain from the foundation of the world, and the dispensations of mercy were even then constituted in anticipation of his death. The ordinary idea of a covenant, which is that of a mutual compact between one or more parties, each bound to render some benefit to the other, is obviously excluded by the nature of the case. A modification both of the Scholastic and Federal theology made its appearance among the Protestants of France. But liberal theology, which Dorrien believes to be “the most creative and influential tradition of theological reflection since the Reformation,” charted a different course. Not only was he, as a moral being, under obligation to conform to the law written upon his heart, and to obey the positive precept given to test his confidence in God, but eternal life was promised him on condition of his obedience. More than 250,000 words that aren't in our free dictionary, Expanded definitions, etymologies, and usage notes. On the other hand, some have contended that the covenant of redemption is that stricter arrangement according to which believers are delivered from all sin, while that of grace is that wider one according to which a sufficient atonement was provided for all men. A seed was secured to him by covenant and it was with an ultimate reference to these that he entered upon his work. Of course the only administrator of it was the Son of God himself, the mediator between God and man. For example, if you want explanation of the foedus operum in brief compass, go somewhere else. xlviii; Witsius, aEcon. Federal Vision Theology is an unorthodox sect of Reformed Christianity. The aim of the promoters of Federal Vision Theology is to pursue a re-interpretation of the established teachings of Reformed theology. Essays, vol. Such was the covenant of grace as formed in eternity. ii, c-f; Max Goebel, Gesch. As part of its research and teaching activities, EPFL is one of the only universities to run a nuclear reactor, a fusion reactor, a Gene/Q Supercomputer, and have P3 bio-hazard facilities. SEE AMYRAUT AND LA PLACE. v; Dick's Lect. ii, chap. The only difference between them was that salvation was presented with greater obscurity, under more symbolical forms, with narrower restrictions to families and nations, and with less enlarged measures of the divine Spirit at some periods than at others. English federal comes from the Latin noun foedus (stem foeder- ) “a formal agreement between states, peoples, or private persons, a league, treaty (of alliance or peace), a marriage compact.”. From Adam to Moses, even before the Law was given, “death … The reason that these gracious influences are not resisted they can only refer to the doctrine of free-will, and from the nature of the case they can give no farther account of it. iii, 218 7252, 630-648). But the obedience required of him as the federal head of his people was more than the mere equivalent of that required of Adam. Adam stood in our place, not directly, because he was our natural head, but because God chose him to stand thus. Theol. And yet it is something more than a mere law or promise. It is conceded that in the last day none will be condemned for any but their own personal sin, and yet it is contended that in the first sin all are rendered liable to both the sinfulness and the misery of the present state. 10:209; Fletcher's Works, i, 452; Gass, Protest. There is even a virtual implication of mutual consent and obligations, for on the one hand God graciously binds himself to the performance of certain engagements with the view of securing results that shall manifest his glory; and man freely consents when, with this understanding, he enters upon a course of obedience., Such a promise on God's part, suspended upon the performance of a condition on man's, is a covenant; The advocates of this system have usually made but two such covenants: viz. § 76, 113; Hopkins's System, i, 240-250; Mercersburg Review, 10:63; Kelly, On the Covenants; Jahrb. Only his first sin was thus imputed to them because the original covenant was broken by that alone, and Adam must afterwards have stood as a single person, and not as a public representative. The final cause of salvation he can indeed find nowhere else than in the divine mind, and he has no occasion to impinge against the highest style of contemporary orthodoxy, and yet he succeeded in giving to theology a more practical character. Among the orthodox dissenters of England it has also been accepted, and found some of, its most able defenders. You must — there are over 200,000 words in our free online dictionary, but you are looking for one that’s only in the Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary. Menu Search. Theolog. Covenant theology (also known as covenantalism, federal theology, or federalism) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall structure of the Bible. i, att. Federal Theology (Lat.faedus, a compact; adj. The Holy Spirit, who must also be looked upon as having a part in this covenant, also engaged to become the efficient agent in the regeneration, sanctification, and glorification of the holy seed. In 1688 a further attempt was made to complete the federal system by Melchior Leydecker, another professor in Utrecht, who, though not in the strictest sense a Federalist, professedly wrote under its spirit and tendency. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Theol. Learn a new word every day. i, § 1). Bible Answer: Both of these words are common words among Christians. Dogm. The Federal Vision is a Reformed evangelical theological conversation that focuses on covenant theology, Trinitarian thinking, the sacraments of baptism and communion, biblical theology and typology, justification, and postmillennialism. Finally, the present economy of things shall cease, the dead shall be raised, the living shall be changed, every human being shall be judged at Christ's bar for sins, not only against God as a moral ruler, but against himself as the mediatorial king, and sentence shall be passed upon each according to his works. Many have thought that before the Fall they were endowed wit-b such supernatural gifts as secured to them the possession of their original righteousness; but, as nothing is said of these in the sacred history, and as they appeared to many inconsistent with the possibility of man's fall, most writers contend that the divine image consisted wholly in the knowledge and moral excellence which Adam had within himself. ; Buck's, Simith's, and Kitto's Dictionaries, art. The 2002 Auburn Avenue Pastors conference argued for a sort of retrieval. This is historical theology, but its focus is definitely on history rather than theology. Federal theology holds that the Scriptures (see especially Rom. Theological definition, of, relating to, or involved with theology: a theological student. II. It uses the theological concept of a covenant as an organizing principle for Christian theology . This was the unity of their nature with his, and his peculiar, position as the natural head of the race; but their representation was something additional to all: that. It is not denied that by these expressions he usually meant the Mosaic or Sinaitic dispensation, in distinction from the evangelical, but, it is thought that such a dispensation could be designated a covenant of works only because it was a republication of a moral law to be a rule of conduct, but not a covenant of life, for a particular nation. As a method sanctioned by God for attaining eternal life, the covenant of works was henceforth abolished and forbidden and yet all men are under obligation to obey the law, and on their own disobedience they must endure its penalty, unless they are redeemed by Jesus Christ. There was a reason on account of which he was thus chosen to act in their stead. The antediluvians, the patriarchs, Job and his friends, the Israelites in Egypt and under the Mosaic dispensation, looked for forgiveness under certain prescribed conditions, and for a city beyond the present world whose builder and maker is God. " AND FEDERAL THEOLOGY Richard C. Barcellos* Much has been written in the last few decades concerning the reassessment or reappraisal of seventeenth-century Reformed orthodoxy.1 Older scholarship viewed the Seventeenth Century as a period of downward movement, increasingly tending toward rationalism and proof-texting, driven by a central-dogma (i.e., the decree of predestination), … But confessedly all are not made partakers of salvation, and only a portion of men were eternally given to Christ by the Father. Instit. ser. The orthodox Congregationalists and the New-school Presbyterians of the United States usually object to the phrase "universal redemption" as used by the Amyraldists of France, the Baxterians of England, and the Arminians generally, inasmuch as the word redemption properly signifies more than what is obtained simply by the expiatory work of Christ, and includes an entire deliverance from sin. Salvation has in all cases been by Christ, even where the subjects of it knew little or nothing respecting him. federalis), a method of stating divine truth, according to which all the doctrines of religion are arranged under the heads of certain covenants God has made with men. None have ever been saved by the law of works, and none have had their hopes bounded by promises of an earthly home. The first, however, who bad the genius and boldness to give definiteness and completeness to the system was John Koch (Cocceius), a pupil of his, and a successor in the same chair.

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